Printing is a knowledge-based industry

2022-08-21
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Printing is a knowledge-based industry

I. the development of electronic publishing in China

in the past 20 years, China's printing and publishing industry has experienced from lead platoon directly to laser Phototypesetting, from plane transportation of newspaper layout paper type directly to remote transmission of layout information via satellite, direct output of full page color layout without posting a slip, and now the realization of newspaper office with Internet technology Such a leapfrog development process as the full digitalization of printing plants has made China's prepress technology leap into the forefront of the world. The whole process can be summed up in the following four technological revolutions

1. The first technological revolution II bid farewell to lead and fire, and jumped directly from lead platoon to advanced laser Phototypesetting (1987 ~ 1993)

more than 20 years ago, almost all printing plants in China used lead typesetting. We are investigating and studying the second generation of optical mechanical Phototypesetter After the technical characteristics of the third generation cathode ray tube typesetter, according to the technical development level of China at that time and the large number of Chinese characters, it was decided to skip the popular second and third generation typesetter and directly develop the fourth generation laser typesetter system, which was not available in the world at that time

therefore, China's printing industry has not experienced the second-generation light machine Phototypesetter and the third-generation cathode-ray tube Phototypesetter, which directly jumped from lead typesetter to the most advanced fourth generation laser typesetter

when implementing the laser Phototypesetting scheme, the problems of too many Chinese characters and too much font information storage force us to adopt the outline description of font earlier than our western counterparts to reduce the amount of information; Because the strokes of Chinese characters are dense, the horizontal and vertical strokes must be uniform when zooming in or out. It prompted us to first use additional prompt information (hNT) to describe the width of horizontal and hard strokes and the characteristics of their head and tail, so as to ensure the symmetry of strokes when words form times of change. In addition, we adopted the whole page output scheme at the beginning, and realized the whole page typesetting and whole page output regardless of book layout or newspaper layout. Therefore, China has not experienced the process of outputting woolen tops and manually pasting plates, and directly jumps to the whole page of the screen to group plates and output the whole page

2. The H agricultural technological revolution: skip using newspaper fax machine to transmit the version, and adopt remote transmission based on page description language (from the beginning of 1991)

in the 1980s, Chinese newspapers used aircraft to transport paper forms to other places, and the printing quality of other places decreased significantly due to the distortion of newspaper fax machine transmission in some cities. Since Chinese newspapers use the same type of typesetting system, since the end of 1990, we have used a unified page description language to transmit the page information to the newspaper page acceptor. After interpreting the page information, it can be restored to the original page output and plate making without distortion. And the amount of information is greatly reduced, which is only about 1/50 of the usual fax mode, so the transmission speed is very fast. In 1992, the people's news agency transmitted the page to 22 cities across the country by satellite in this way, and the average page can be transmitted every two minutes. This technology was soon popularized in Chinese newspapers at home and abroad. After 1992, most central level newspapers in China have adopted this method to spread the newspaper layout to other provinces and some municipal newspapers have also greatly expanded their circulation

3. The third technological revolution II bid farewell to the traditional electronic color separation machine (from the beginning of 1992)

before 1992. All color publications in China are produced by imported electronic color separation machines. It takes 2-3 hours to manually cut and paste one page of color edition of newspapers with color separation machines. In 1987, we proposed to develop an open color phototypesetting system to replace the electric extension. In January, 1992, "Macao" used the domestic color newspaper publishing system to process the text and color photo table, and it only took more than 20 minutes to output a page of Color Edition (now shortened to 2 minutes), thus starting the color publishing technology revolution that bid farewell to the electronic extension. Now there are hundreds of newspapers with brilliant editions, and dozens of newspapers with brilliant editions every day. Domestic systems account for more than 90% of the 30mm color newspaper market. In 1994, we developed a high-end color desktop publishing system with quality comparable to that of the electronic extension, which has entered the field of pictorial and color magazines

4. The fourth technological revolution: bid farewell to paper and pen, and realize the management of the whole process of information processing (from the beginning of 1994)

in January 1994, Shenzhen evening news adopted the founder acquisition and editing process management system, and its own edition began to bid farewell to paper and pen. At present, there are more than 200 such newspapers. In addition to the collection and editing process management system, it has also developed an advertising management and production system, distribution system, electronic newspaper system, etc., which are closely integrated with the newspaper edition system to form an integrated management scheme of newspaper information. The development of Internet has provided favorable conditions for the overall solution of highly integrated newspaper offices. Now the layout information can not only be used for printing, but also be directly output to the web server, forming an electronic newspaper with good timeliness; The manuscript data adopts standard XML language for browsing. Because it supports intranet and Internet, users can use the Internet to process the collection and editing process at any place. When the editor in chief of Guangzhou was in the United States. Through inter, et understands the newspaper office workflow, which makes foreign counterparts very surprised

second, online publishing will become the mainstream of the development of electronic publishing in China. The concept of online publishing, which appeared a few years ago, was composed of two concepts, namely "web-based printing and publishing" and "web-based publishing". These two concepts have been unified under the banner of "web-based cross media publishing"

1. cross media publishing of newspapers and publishing houses

cross media publishing of newspapers and publishing houses has been launched. Interconnection spans time and space, and has the characteristics and advantages of large amount of information. The mutually exclusive problem of price and standard affecting the newspaper industry needs to be solved urgently. The advantages of ICP newspapers on the Internet lie in their brand effect, wide information sources and strong editing system. It has become a common desire of Chinese newspapers to reflect their existing advantages on the Internet as soon as possible

from ② of China trade news on October 20, 1995 Not only the standard year number has changed, but the first newspaper in mainland China has been published in almost all major newspapers in China. The main technical problem of publishing on is how to solve the difference between the format of printing and publishing data and that of online publishing data. There is no serious technical obstacle to this problem in China, which is mainly due to the technical choice we made when designing the newspaper editing process system. When the XML standard was still in the drafting stage, we defined XML as the normalized data standard of the manuscript of the collection and editing process system, and planted the XML data into the layout through the software plug-in of the typesetting software, so as to realize the interface between XML data and printing. Through the self-developed electronic newspaper system, the XML data is converted into HTML, so as to realize the data publishing. At present, more than 30 major newspapers in China have adopted this cross media publishing solution

under the influence of esook technology, Chinese publishing houses have also begun to plan to publish their contents on the Internet in the form of esook in the past two years. The publishing house keeps a large number of electronic books stored in the format of Founder typesetting software, Microsoft Word software and other software. To achieve the distribution of these books. We need to solve the problems of data browser, copyright protection, publishing server and data format normalization. Now these technical problems have been solved, so as to realize the synchronous publishing of printed books and ebook and cross media publishing in the field of book publishing

2. Workflow technology will be used in China's printing and publishing industry

in the process of digital transformation, there is a common phenomenon that digital production output and manual folding coexist in Chinese printing enterprises. This incomplete digitalization has a negative impact on the application of CTP and the substantial improvement of production efficiency. Workflow technology is to break the current situation of digital and manual coexistence in China. Provided technical support

the promotion of workflow technology in China has its own unique way. Most enterprises take the final realization of CTP output as the goal, and gradually realize digital proofing, PDF output, dam management, and finally realize the digitization of the whole process from the realization of digital folding

the technology of digital folding hands, which bid farewell to scissors, has made many printing houses cancel the manual typesetting that accounts for a large proportion of plate making in both number of people and plant area through the promotion and popularization of folding software, removing an obstacle on the road of the popularization of Ding P

the popularity of digital proofing is more difficult than digital folding. In addition to the reasons recognized by customers, another reason why digital proofing is difficult to promote is that the printing adaptability is unstable due to the low level of digital management in printing plants. At present, printing plants and equipment manufacturers have recognized this and began to solve it

On the other hand, the development of printing enterprise production process also promotes the development of printing enterprise management process. Among all kinds of enterprises in China, the printing industry is the most popular industry with computers as production tools, but the level of information management in this industry has been very low. The contrast between production and management informatization has become a feature of this industry. The internal e-commerce system represented by the production process management of printing enterprises. Its importance in enterprise production has been recognized by more and more enterprises

3. Internet based electronic publishing will gain more extensive development in China.

in the past, China's printing and publishing industry developed by technological leaps and bounds, and will do so in the future. In some areas of China that have not yet watched TV, Internet can be used. Due to the imbalance of economic development, there is still a lot of room for the development of printing and publishing in China. According to statistics, China's annual per capita consumption of printed matter is only about $10, only 20-30 times that of developed countries. Under such a market background, the development trend of common promotion and common prosperity of printing and publishing and online publishing is foreseeable

facing the opportunities and challenges brought by Internet, China's publishing and printing industry has shown great enthusiasm, and many enterprises have timely adjusted their direction and repositioned in the new environment. Newspapers, books and periodicals publishing industry choose cross media publishing as the new development direction. Design and production enterprises expand their business to the production of pages and cross media data. Printing enterprises expand their business and living space by expanding the types of prints and service items. These adjustments have added new concepts and new contents to electronic publishing and added new vitality. The development and progress of human civilization is endless. Printing and publishing, as the product of human civilization, will continue to develop with human civilization

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